Engineers help create many of the structures, devices, and processes we use and depend upon every day—and they also figure out how to make existing systems work better. High-school engineering classes can provide many opportunities to explore ways to mitigate global warming and climate change, including finding ways to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG)—now an important engineering specialty.
Would any of the following questions help start or deepen discussion and understanding in your classroom?
- What is average per-capita energy use in the world? …in the developed world? …in the U.S.?
(The U.S. has less than 5% of the world population, but consumes over 25% of its resources.)
- How can we reduce our demand for energy by 25%? … 50%? …
- Can we become ‘climate neutral’?
(What will happen if we don’t?)
- How can we harness more wind and solar energy? Can we do this where the power is needed? (When we generate power at industrial-scale power generating stations and then send it hundreds of miles, there are significant losses in transmission.)
- Do we need to find safer ways to extract oil and gas—or ways to eliminate fossil fuels?
- What will be the roles for engineering in a world where sustainability and reducing global warming are top priorities? (Will you be prepared for these jobs?)
- What might various engineering specialties contribute to reducing or mitigating the climate crisis caused by global warming?
(For example, Can chemical engineering develop more efficient ways to capture solar energy for electricity, store energy, or generate heat or electricity without GHG?)
- How might your school produce energy renewably on campus? What greater efficiencies might be created?
- The term ‘embedded energy’ is sometimes used to describe energy used to manufacture a product. Since energy use has a direct correlation to the GHG emissions, this is sometimes described as ‘embedded carbon’.
- When looking at sustainability, we often see ideas that appear to be good, but may have damaging long-term impacts that can even dwarf the immediate and visible impacts. Some of the great feats of engineering have wound up causing ‘unintended consequences’, because they failed to look at the whole system or failed to do a comprehensive life-cycle analysis. Sometimes this is the result of designers and engineers restricted to working within boundaries that do not allow a more complete analysis, and sometimes the sponsoring company or institution wants to avoid consideration of factors that could complicate the project or increase costs.
- How can life cycle analysis and consideration of possible unintended consequences help us evaluate projects in terms of sustainability?
- What GHG emissions are created in the manufacture and construction of a nuclear power plant?
- What GHG emissions are created in the mining and refining of uranium and the manufacture and eventual disposal of the fuel rods used in nuclear reactors?
- What can we learn about unintended consequences from the nuclear catastrophes at Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima?
- Clear boundaries can be important to maintain project focus, but operating within a holistic decision-making framework is critical—life cycle analysis and examining the whole system within which the project will function.
Sources and Additional Resources for Engineering
- Solar FAQs [PDF]. by Jeff Tsao, et al. Global-scale energy and GHG projections by U.S. Department of Energy, California Institute of Technology, and Argonne National Laboratory, 2005. Some estimates and cost assumptions are out of date, but this is still an important resource for understanding long-term energy and carbon/GHG projections. [www.sandia.gov/~jytsao/Solar%20FAQs.pdf]
- TeachEngineering website – large, searchable database of curriculum resources include lessons and activities for grades K–12 [www.teachengineering.org]
- Teachers Guide to High Quality Educational Materials on Climate Change and Global Warming. Carnegie Mellon University [hdgc.epp.cmu.edu/teachersguide/teachersguide.htm]
- Visual Art and Writing in Science and Engineering. TeachEngineering website. [www.teachengineering.org/lessons/view/gat_visual_art_lesson01]